SOLVED! Managing Patient Care

Write a paper on : “Managing Patient Care”, be sure to include the following points in your discussion: 

1.            Differentiate among the types of nursing care delivery models.

2.            Describe the elements of shared decision making.

3.            Describe the characteristics and traits of a transactional leader.

4.            Discuss the ways in which a nurse manager supports staff involvement in a decentralized decision-making model.

5.            Discuss ways to apply clinical care coordination skills in nursing practice.

6.            Discuss principles to follow in the appropriate delegation of patient care activities.

A+ Expert Answer

1.           Differentiate among the types of nursing care delivery models.

  1.  Total Patient Care. Total patient care is a high-intensity form of care. This is one of the oldest patient care delivery models in use, with clinicians overseeing almost every aspect of patient care. Clinicians develop individual treatment goals, working in shifts to cover everything from personal hygiene and medication to emotional support and additional therapies and treatments. Total patient care is a more traditional model in which a patient is cared for by one caregiver who is replaced by another at the end of a designated shift.
  2. Functional Care. Functional care is a method that has been used for many decades. Functional care is based on a team ethic and produces a catalog of processes that are carried out by various individuals to ensure efficient patient care delivery. This model, in addition to utilizing the skills of clinicians at various stages of their careers, has the potential to save healthcare providers and facilities money by increasing efficiency and productivity. Rather than improving overall health and wellbeing, the goal of this approach is to work as a team to carry out individual elements of the treatment plan.
  3. Team Care. It is similar to the functional model in essence, but it operates on a larger scale. A senior clinician leads the team and is in charge of delegating tasks throughout the group. The collective cares for multiple patients at once, and jobs are assigned based on skill level, training, and experience. This model allows healthcare professionals with limited experience to learn from peers who have expertise and knowledge, while also allowing those with more experience to focus on core tasks that match their skill set. This model improves efficiency for healthcare providers while also providing valuable training opportunities for those looking to advance in their careers.
  4. Primary Care. Because a single senior clinician is responsible for the patient throughout their hospital stay, this model favors a more holistic approach to patient care. This model is appropriate for patients with more complex needs, such as those who have an underlying illness that may lead to complications. Primary care is a more comprehensive model that can improve care continuity and foster stronger relationships between patients and the care team. This can help care providers achieve a better work-life balance, but it does not always work well with the primary care delivery model.
     

2.   Describe the elements of shared decision making.

      Essential elements on decision making:

  1. Recognizing and acknowledging that a decision is required. Shared decision making takes a different approach to achieving optimal care by deeply involving patients in health-related decisions. Even experts can struggle to identify situations in which more than one treatment option exists and a decision must be made. In order for both parties to capitalize on the opportunity, health care providers must learn to recognize and communicate each such occurrence to their patients. At that point, the provider and patient can discuss what role they will each play in the decision-making process.
  2.  Knowing and understanding the best available evidence. Once it is recognized that a decision must be made, all parties involved must comprehend the best available medical evidence relevant to the decision. Achieving this goal necessitates presenting the evidence in a comprehensible manner, a task made more difficult by patients’ varying levels of health literacy. 
  3. Incorporating the patient’s values and preferences into the decision.  There is widespread agreement that shared decision making entails either clarifying or eliciting patients’ values and preferences. However, these processes are not even present in the majority of clinical practice. It may appear simple to inquire about a patient’s values and preferences, but the actual process of values clarification or preference elicitation is fraught with difficulties. Values and preferences, for example, have been shown to be highly unstable, and changing the method of asking a question can significantly change a patient’s answer.

3.    Describe the characteristics and traits of a transactional leader.

       Transactional leadership, also known as managerial leadership, is concerned with the interactions between leaders and followers.

     Characteristics of Transactional Leadership

  • Revel inefficiency.
  • Very left-brained.
  • Tend to be inflexible.
  • Opposed to change.
  • Focused on short-term goals.
  • Favor structured policies and procedures.
  • Thrive on following rules and doing things correctly.

        Traits Of A Transactional Leader

  • 1.      Extrinsic Motivator. Transactional leaders use a system of rewards and punishments to elicit the desired goals and performance from their direct reports. This translates into employees receiving extrinsic rewards for behaving in a predictable manner and receiving punishment for any deviation. This type of motivation appeals to employees’ self-interest.
  • 2.      Unflinchingly Practical. One of the most distinguishing characteristics of a transactional leader is practicality. Their pragmatic approach to problem solving entails considering all opportunities as well as realistic constraints before making a decision. They prefer realism over idealism and understand the difference between their employees’ skill and will. Their ability to connect the results obtained to the overall goals of the organization allows them to see the big picture.
  • 3.      Laser-Focused. Transactional leaders are laser-focused on achieving their objectives. Nothing in the world can deter them from pursuing their dreams.
  • 4.      Resistant To Change. Because this leadership style is diametrically opposed to transformational leadership, transactional leaders are naturally resistant to change and do not seek to disrupt things. The leader desires that everything continue to function as it has in the past and does not believe in improving working conditions. Transactional leaders impose their own instructions and orders on their employees, leaving no room for creativity or innovation. Employee empowerment and individuality are not considered. However, fear of retaliation and the concept of ‘each to his own’ breed mistrust between employees and leaders.
  • 5.      Discourages Independent Thinking. Employees are not encouraged to think for themselves or act creatively by transactional leaders. Risky actions, decision making, and independent thought are discouraged because such leaders believe that whatever they have decided is the best course of action. A transactional leader always tells their subordinates what to do and is not open to any form of insubordination or complaint.

4.  Discuss the ways in which a nurse manager supports staff involvement in a decentralized decision-making model.


        Decentralized management, in which decision-making is delegated to staff, is very common in health-care organizations. This management structure has the advantage of fostering an environment in which managers and employees are more actively involved in shaping the identity and determining the success of a health care organization. Working in a decentralized structure has the potential to increase collaborative effort, staff competency, staff motivation, and, ultimately, a greater sense of professional accomplishment and satisfaction.  Managers must understand how to move decisions down to the lowest level possible in order for decentralized decision making to work. All nursing staff members (RNs, licensed practical nurses [LPNs], and licensed vocational nurses [LVNs]), nurse assistants, and unit secretaries must participate on a nursing unit. They must be kept up to date. Managers must also provide them with opportunities to participate in problem-solving activities, such as direct patient care and unit activities such as committee participation. Responsibility, autonomy, authority, and accountability are critical components of the decision-making process.

      The ways in which a nurse manager supports staff involvement in a decentralized decision-making model are the ff:

• Assist staff in establishing annual goals for the unit and systems needed to accomplish goals.

• Monitor professional nursing standards of practice on the unit.

• Develop an ongoing staff development plan, including one for new employees.

• Recruit new employees (interview and hire).

• Conduct routine staff evaluations.

• Establish self as a role model for positive customer service (customers include patients, families, and other health care team members).

• Submit staffing schedules for the unit.

• Conduct regular patient rounds and problem solve patient or family complaints.

• Establish and implement a unit quality improvement plan.

• Review and recommend new equipment for the unit.

• Conduct regular staff meetings.

• Make rounds with health care providers.

• Establish and support staff and interdisciplinary committees.

5.   Discuss ways to apply clinical care coordination skills in nursing practice.


      With the healthcare system’s transformation well underway, hospitals, health systems, and insurers are emphasizing care coordination as a key tool in improving patient health and satisfaction while also controlling healthcare costs. Nursing care is coordinated in the following ways: Sharing patient care knowledge with other members of a care team. Working to ensure smooth care transitions. Working with multiple providers on a healthcare team to create a personalized, proactive care plan to manage a patient’s healthcare needs. Professional nursing connects these approaches, promoting quality, safety, and efficiency in care, resulting in better health outcomes that are consistent with nursing’s holistic, patient-centered framework of care. 

6.  Discuss principles to follow in the appropriate delegation of patient care activities.

      The RN should consider the patient’s condition (acuity), staff skills and experience, the complexity of the task assigned, staff workload, desired outcomes, and the amount of supervision required to achieve the desired outcomes for the shift when delegating tasks to nursing personnel. RNs are responsible for the decision to delegate as well as the quality of nursing care provided to the healthcare consumer. The delegating RN is still accountable for the patient outcomes associated with nurse delegation, as long as the person to whom the task was delegated followed the instructions exactly. Step-by-step explanation.

References

Musa, D. (2022). Retrieved February 2022, from https://ac-health.com/improving-discharge-instruction-compliance/#anchor-link-1

Shared Decision Making: Examining Key Elements And Barriers To Adoption Into Routine Clinical Practice | Health Affairs Journal. (2022). Health Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.2012.1078

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