The purpose of this research project is for you to write a professional, graduate-level research paper in current APA format. Competency in current APA format is required of all Business graduates of Liberty University, as set forth by policy of both the graduate faculty and the administration.
You will research and write a paper analyzing the cultural perspectives of doing business in another nation. Your professor will provide a list of approved nations from which you will choose one nation.
After reading your paper, the reader should be able to comprehensively answer the following research questions. Thus, the research questions form the major aspects (APA Level 1 headings) of your outline.
Important Points to Consider
Some students do not fully understand the difference between plagiarism and paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is when you take a source or someone else’s idea and say it in your own words. When you paraphrase, you must still give the author’s name, date, the title of the source, the scholarly journal from where it came, and the exact website address or book from where it came. However, when you directly quote a source, it must have quotation marks around the quote, or (if 40 words or more) it must be set in block-quotation format. Give detailed information of where you acquired the quote.
For the purpose of this paper, adhere to the following rules when quoting or using a source:
The Japanese people are great communicators. In (Midooka, 1990) it’s explained that the Japanese give the highest priority to Wa. Wa is described as method Japanese abide by in the sake of keeping peaceful relations with others. Different from western culture that uses a ‘guilt- culture’ the Japanese use a ‘shame-culture’. They always side with caution and tend to not offend. They always try to be polite and courteous. The primary language used in Japan is Japanese. With different dialects being found around the country. Still the Japanese language is based off courtesy and respect. An example of this would be how the Japanese say thank you.
The correct method to communicate appreciation is “Domo arigatogozaimasu” which translate to “Thank you very much” it is very important to say the phrase in its entirety because cutting it short or paraphrasing can come off as un-polite or un-professional. If a person just uses the term “arigato” this would be deemed as un-polite and too personal, which if you have no personal relationship with the individual, it does not make for a good impression. Essentially equivalent to using just the word “thanks”. Even us in the western hemisphere tend to be rubbed the wrong way, by a term like that. The Japanese especially, find this unrefined.
In Japanese culture the religion like most practices in Japan, come from heritage and history. There can be three primary religions found there, Shinto, Buddhism, and Confucianism. The most common religion is the Shinto religion. In (Watt, 2003) the Shinto religion is explained as something that came from pre-historic period before sixth century. What makes the Shinto
religion specific to Japan is the belief that Japanese believe in the spirits or deities. The religion does not focus on literature or scripture as most. Instead, the Japanese people practice this religion with ritualistic traditions. The second most common is Buddhism. The Buddhism religion arose in India in the sixth century. Having passed through China and Korea, it arrived to Japan in the sixth century. According to (Watt,2003), Buddhism is a practice that an individual could take up gain release from suffering. The great Buddha taught others that they should understand they every being will eventually become ill, grow old and die. The third most common religion found in Japan is called Confucianism. Just like Buddhism it was brought to Japan through China and Korea. A belief system that was taught by Confucius, a native of China. It became a leading ideology of state and pervasive teaching, as explained by (Watt, 2003).
The Japanese people are well known for their compassion and ability to show kindness to others. Their ethics rely on these two distinct qualities. In (Carter, 2019) it is explained they have a key approach for the teaching of human-heartedness through their arts. Through tea, flowers, calligraphy, landscape design, and the indigenous martial art called aikido. The high and goal for Japanese people is to reach total enlightenment. It’s believed that they can reach this by genuine expression of compassion. Though it should arise as a spontaneous reaction rather than a planned action. The reasoning behind using compassion as basis for this, is it is thought that, an ethical person has a passion for acting well, someone that doesn’t cause undue pain to others, and is a nurturing and protecting of their environments. Believing that we are all in the same plane and can be one with nature.
Business Cultural Dimensions Analysis Assignment Japan
They have a firm belief system, that revolves around courtesy and mutual respect. They are highly kind and gentle people that will be first to show people how they want to be treated. They will always show kindness and courtesy to all they meet. Their only hope would be, to be able to receive the same treatment back in return. Because of this common trait many people have referred this as to ‘Japanese-style’ because majority of people from Japan, if not all tend to show great levels of kindness and courtesy to all they meet. In (Midooka, 1990) it’s explained that ‘Japanese-style’ is a good way to refer a culture that has an emphasis with keeping good relations with others. In Japan, there is a value in holding your family in high regards.
The family is something very high in the way the Japanese bring up their kids and how they treat their elders. They seek progress as whole, rather than individuals. They value their history and their ancestorial accomplishments. Education is extremely valued in Japan. Like in America, it is started at kindergarten and continues throughout life. Their education is not only in scientific and quantitative information, but the value of treating others well is enforced during their education process. To the Japanese culture, discipline is strictly enforced and encouraged. Societal norms are strictly enforced, for example when it is ok to speak or act. This is especially prevalent with young children or young adults.
When conducting business with Japanese people, it’s important to view it as a relationship, just as much as a partnership. Japanese businesspeople will always take a slow and
methodical approach when deciding to go into business with someone. They will get to the know the individual before committing. Engaging in small talk, and testing qualities in an individual as a person is just as integral as how they conduct their business. They are tough in their negotiation practices. With a high value in the human relationships. When meeting or proposing business with someone they have not met. They always use and intermediate that they know and trust on both sides, before conducting business. In (Wangchuk Kazi, 2020) the business customs that can be distinct to the Japanese are very similar to how they are in everyday life.
Already established they are a culture of discipline and rules, how they conduct business is not different. There will always be a seating arrangement that is going to be known by all members of the business meeting. Does not matter whether it is a formal or un-formal setting. The eldest is always sat in a higher position than the youngest, it is important to show respect to the eldest. The attire worn by all participating in the meeting must be extremely professional, neat looking and without too much flash. When giving a business card to anyone, you either leave in on the table or you will give it using both hands. Some of the minimum expectations if you wish to conduct business in Japan.
With a rich and cultural history to the country, Japan social structures have a remembrance of the old empirical period, mixed with a modernized society. In Japan the social structures are Imperial, Nobel, Daimyo, New Nobility, Upper Middle class, and lower middle class. In (Levy, 2000) the levels are explained as integral to the current and future success that Japan will have. The imperial family is the top of the hierarchy due to their relation to the emperor. The emperor serves as a focal point of the entire social system. But rather than rule like
a king or other royalty, the emperor is viewed as dietic communicator for the people of Japan. Serving as more than a spokesperson for the deity, but also as representation of the people of Japan. The second is in the structure is the Nobel group. They are consisting of the a prestigious group that descends from the families prominent in the period before the twelfth century. The Daimyo group, are the descendants of the dukes and counts who ruled the various principalities. With over 260 principalities, these rulers where made of feudal lords. This class is getting somewhat diminished with now less than a thousand left in Japan. The New nobility class is are those that have been ennobled sine 1868. Descendants of the samurai, a fierce warrior who is equivalent to a knight from England.
Different from the previous classes, while you can be born into this class, it is also possible to marry into it. The upper middle class can at times overlap into the new nobility because while they do not have titles at birth they can obtain them through life. Industrialist and businessmen. The upper middle class is full of rich and prestigious families. The final class in Japan is the lower middle class. This one is the most known, because they are always the ones interacting with tourists and are shopkeepers. They are the white-collar workers of Japan.
It’s important that we see the Japanese culture as one rich in history and tradition. The people strongly believe that compassion is a quality they all should display, in every aspect of their day-to-day living. Everything they do as people translates over to their business operations.
Speaking the same language without a doubt is the key element when conducting business. Their use of non-verbal ques is an essential element when reading a person. Body posture or body language could come off as aggressive or unapproachable. In (Yoshie, 2019) it’s explained that speaking with your body means a lot in Japanese culture. To turn your back on someone while they are talking to you is viewed as highly disrespectful.
Doing something like this during a business meeting would certainly shutdown all communication lines and likely end the business negotiations. As mentioned earlier in Japan proper and polite use of words is extremely important to maintain a good line of communication open. With different dialects located around the country, there must be a knowledge of what is the correct one to use. Ensuring clear and concise intent is meant and clarified. If you are saying yes, are you acknowledging a statement or agreeing to the business proposition.
What’s important to remember when conducting business in Japan, is they will always want to get to know the people they are going to work with. In United states we believe that our moral compass is led by our religious beliefs. We believe that stealing as an act, is wrong. The idea of whether it is necessary is debatable dependent on the situation.
For example, a man steals a peace of bread to feed his family. While it is viewed as wrong to steal, his reasoning can be justifiable. That is a belief we have distinguished due to our religion. In Japan, businesspeople will seek to find out what kind of person you are. They are a culture led primarily with the Shinto religion. Having a belief in spirits and of good spiritual health. This leads them to be compassionate and very kind people. They want to see what kind of moral compass you live by, and that is typically dictated by your religion.
In business, both religion and ethics will go hand in hand. It’s important to consider that your ethics are led by religion. The practice of Buddhism, and Confucianism is very prevalent in Japanese dealings. In (Taka, 1994) The belief of karma from Buddhism leads the Japanese to be fair in their dealings, and do not do people wrong. This is probably more likely due to the fact they actually get to know the people they are dealing with on a personal and intimate level prior to going into business with them. Humanizing a deal, or a person will always allow a person to see them as something more than just a name on paper or random stranger they went into business with.
In business just like most social circles, it’s important to surround yourself with like- minded people. Japanese have a strong sense of honor, both in their heritage and how they conduct themselves. Japanese value a hard work attitude and certainly appreciate it in their employees, but also expect it. While we here in the United States have a reward the hardest worker mentality. Japanese all believe in working together for the greater of the business. It’s a sense of loyalty that is built from childhood through their parents and sense of belonging to the family as explained by (Yamamoto, 2019).
Our manners shape who we are. These can be instilled in us through education at school, or our upbringings with our family. Just like in the military there are customs and courtesies that are instilled in the troops during basic or recruit training. They are enforced every day as they
serve, thus overtime having them come off as polite and professional. Japanese up brining is very similar, in how they are very high in their expectations. How they speak to adults, or their elders they use the same mannerisms when addressing professionals in the workforce. Noting that not just how the boss is treated, the Japanese culture is keen on treating their customer with great respect. If you walk into a business or store, you are greeted upon entering and thanked as you walk out.
If an employee is by the door, they will go out of their way to open the door for you. Like most customs and courtesies these are all passed down from generation to generation. A culture that is rich in tradition this is an integral part of conducting business. The Japanese people are earning a reputation for being of great business sense. This could not be met or held without the passing on traditions from the older generations. It is important to understand that while passing on the traditions does not mean success but enforcing them is key.
Just like any culture in the world there is a rich and a poor structure. It’s already been discussed of the empyreal to the lower classes of society. While some are born into wealth and social status, in Japan there is still a path to allow for some to reach a higher status over their lifetime. Earning it through hard work, or perhaps by being married into it. In the old times of feudal Japan, the shogun began the social hierarchy and ended with merchants.
Today, Japan is known by all accounts as an advanced capital society. In (Lincoln, 2004) its described that the success is also due to the transactions that have been most intertwined or embedded in social relations. With changes that have led to hierarchical structure. These changes however where only made on the surface. In today’s societal structure the classes remain the same. This is partly due to the standardization that is implemented in Japan with every major
cultural revelation. One of those changes is after World War II, Japan had just lost the war to the United States, but rather than culturally appropriate our society into theirs, we introduced them inro our educational systems. They adopted the standard of learning a second language. This type of standardization only keeps the social distance on the track that is currently is. In (Fujihara, 2020) explains that the gap between social hierarchy’s are very large between the social classes. This is obviously due to organizational position, work structure, and size of the firm’s people are employed with.
Carter, R. E. (2019, October 31). Japanese ethics. Oxford Handbooks Online. Retrieved June 12, 2022, from
Fujihara, S. (2020, May 20). Socio-economic standing and social status in contemporary Japan: Scale constructions and their applications. OUP Academic. Retrieved June 12, 2022, from https://academic.oup.com/esr/article/36/4/548/5841157
Levy, M. J. (2000). Some Implications of Japanese Social Structure. The American Sociologist, 31(2), 18–31. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27698950
Lincoln, J., & Gerlach, M. L. (2004). Japan’s network economy. Google Books. Retrieved June 12, 2022, from https://books.google.com/books? id=6L5F3yGIlfcC&lpg=PR11&ots=SeR140lBex&dq=social+structures+of+business+japan+sch olarly+articles&lr&pg=PR11#v=onepage&q&f=false
|Midooka, K. (1990). Characteristics of Japanese-style communication.||Media, Culture & Society,||12(4),|
Business Cultural Dimensions Analysis Assignment Japan
|Taka, I. (1994). Business Ethics: A Japanese View.||Business Ethics Quarterly,|
Wangchuk Kazi, J., Sengupta, S., & Aggarwal , A. (2020, April). A comprehensive study of Japanese business culture – IJSER. Retrieved June 12, 2022, from https://www.ijser.org/researchpaper/A- Comprehensive-Study-of-Japanese-Business-Culture.pdf
Watt, P. (2003, October). Japanese religions. FSI. Retrieved June 12, 2022, from
Yamamoto, K., & Lloyd, R. A. (2019). Ethical Considerations of Japanese Business Culture. Journal of
Business Diversity, 19(2). https://articlegateway.com/index.php/JBD/article/view/2059
Yoshie, & Sauter, D. A. (2020). Cultural norms influence nonverbal emotion communication: Japanese
vocalizations of socially disengaging emotions. Emotion., 20(3), 513–517. https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000580
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